Physical, psychological and financial effects of road traffic accidents


Physical consequences


People who get into car accidents may suffer cuts from contact with sharp metal, broken glass and flying debris. If a person does not properly treat the cut, they may suffer a skin infection such as impetigo, an infection beneath skin tissue called cellulitis or a potentially life-threatening condition known as sepsis, Healthline notes.A game for every taste on the site

<a href=”https://777spiele.com/50-euro-bonus-ohne-einzahlung/”>online casino 50 euro bonus ohne einzahlung</a>Cuts may also leave permanent scars which can only be removed through expensive cosmetic surgery.


Burns frequently occur in crashes in which the impact ruptures a fuel line or gas tank and, in turn, triggers an explosion. People may also suffer thermal burns from contact with hot parts of the vehicle or friction burns from being dragged for a distance. As medical doctors points out, burns can lead to permanent scarring as well as related problems such as contractures, or the tightening of skin, muscles and tendons due to scar tissue.


Muscles, tendons and ligaments can sustain long-term damage due to the sudden, awkward body movements that a person experiences in a collision. For example, a rear-end collision may cause a person’s head to snap back-and-forth in a violent motion, strain soft tissue in the neck and cause a condition known as whiplash. This condition can lead to chronic pain and discomfort.


A person’s body gets thrown around in a crash. The sudden movement can easily lead to wrist, arm, leg, ankle, collarbone and rib fractures. Many car accident victims suffer multiple fractures. Some fractures may heal in a matter of weeks. However, a severe fracture may take an extended period of time to heal and could result in a life-long disability.


Nearly half of all people who live with a missing limb in countries of SADC suffered the loss of limb due to a traumatic event such as an auto accident, according to stats compiled by the World Health Organization (WHO). A victim may suffer complications such as loss of mobility, infection, blood clots, muscle contractures and “phantom limb pain.”


The back and spinal cord are highly susceptible to damage in a crash. On one end of the spectrum, a car accident victim may suffer a lower back sprain or a slipped or bulging disc. The accident may aggravate a pre-existing back condition. On the other end of the spectrum, the victim may suffer damage to the network of nerves that runs down the spine and sends signals to the rest of the body. As a result, the victim may suffer partial or total paralysis, or the loss of feeling and use of one’s limbs. Paralysis may also lead to other complications such as pressure ulcers.


Even a low-speed accident can cause a driver or passenger to slam into the dashboard, window, seat or some other object in the car. Many victims suffer concussions without realizing it due to the shock and adrenaline. For this reason, it is important to always see a doctor after a crash. You should be examined for this “invisible” but serious injury. In cases of severe TBI, victims may fall into a coma and/or die from damage to the brain.


The impact in a crash may cause an object to puncture an organ or cause a compression of the organs. If internal bleeding occurs, it may be a sign of a serious and potentially life-threatening problem. The victim may go into shock. A skilled medical professional should take immediate steps to bring the bleeding under control and prevent long-term organ damage.


WHO statistics show that the majority of people who die in traffic accidents are those in passenger vehicles. Taking industrial nations with low accident rates as an example, in 2016 alone, there were 23,714 occupants of passenger cars who died in wrecks in the USA. Out of the 52,190 vehicles involved in fatal crashes in the U.S., 40,908 were passenger vehicles= 78%. Passenger vehicle deaths are highly likely when the crash involves a tractor-trailer.

Psychological consequences


There is no official data about adults with anxiety disorder living in SADC countries, however the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) reports that 44 million American adults live with some form of anxiety disorder. That number includes people who experienced a traumatic event such as an auto accident. Many psychiatric disorders fall into this category, including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and certain phobias. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has also been linked to anxiety.


Depression is another common emotional effect of a car accident. The most common type of depression is major depressive disorder. It affects an estimated 16.1 million American adults each year, according to the ADAA. Overwhelming sadness and loss of interest in daily activities are signs of depression. A disorder may be diagnosed if symptoms persist for weeks.


After a crash, a victim may experience changes in their personality and behavior that don’t exactly fit into a neat category. They may be symptoms of different types of disorders. For instance, many people suffer delusions after a traumatic event. In other words, they believe something to be true even when presented with evidence to the contrary. Confusion, delirium, hallucinations and other types of disorganized speech and behavior are other types of changes that can occur, according to Merck.


Stress from a traumatic event causes a wide range of sleep disorders, according to the World Health Organization. The stress overstimulates the brain. In turn, it causes the release of neurochemicals such as epinephrine and adrenaline. Those neurochemicals can keep you awake, cause nightmares and flashbacks and, ultimately, disturb your sleep. Daytime fatigue can add to your problems.


Several years ago, University of Wisconsin Medical School researchers identified a specific type of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that was common among car accident survivors. They called it “subsyndromal” or “partial” PTSD. Victims with this condition tended to have:

• High levels of hyperarousal and re-experiencing symptoms
• Low levels of avoidance or emotional numbing symptoms.

If you were in a severe accident, witnessed a severe injury or death, or perceived a life-threatening event, you face a high risk of developing PTSD, according to the Wisconsin medical researchers. A person with PTSD may be unable to work or maintain healthy relationships with friends or family. Many PTSD victims choose to “self-medicate” and develop addiction issues.

Financial consequences


A car accident can cause major cosmetic and mechanical damage to a car. The car’s actual cash value (ACV) will play an important role. If the cost of repairs is less than the car’s ACV, then an insurance company will likely agree to pay repairs. However, the car’s actual value will diminish with a crash on its record. If the cost of repairs exceeds the car’s ACV, the insurer will likely agree to pay the ACV. If you pay the car’s salvage value, you typically may keep the car and the salvage title.


Medical treatment has the greatest financial effect on auto accident victims and their families. The costs can be exorbitant. This is especially true if a person suffers injuries that require surgery, hospitalization, medication, assistive devices and ongoing care and attention. For instance, the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation estimates that a person with paralysis will incur US$518,904 in medical costs in the first year and US$68,739 in every subsequent year.


If a person suffers from a serious physical disability after a car accident, the person’s home may need to undergo extensive modification. Today, the goal is to provide a person with a “universal design” that accommodates their unique needs when it comes to getting in and out of the home, using the shower and bathroom, cooking or using a computer. However, the remodeling costs can be extensive – and insurance may not cover it all.


An accident victim may suffer from a partial or total disability that prevents the person from returning to work at full capacity or returning to work at all. When assessing lost income costs, it is important to look at the person’s average weekly earnings, education, training and experience as well as how many years the person would have likely worked.


A person may contribute a great deal more to a home than income. The person may provide a wide range of services that have value such as mowing the lawn or taking care of the children. Due to the injuries suffered in an auto accident, the person may no longer be able to contribute those services. The costs of childcare and replacing other services can add up.

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